Rubber processing methods
How much rubber is bouncing around out there? According to the International Rubber Study Group, 9.Borgy manotoc birthday
But before that natural rubber is transformed into stuff like hoses, rubber bands and little yellow ducks, it has to be processed. Inabout Synthetic rubber polymers are made from petroleum-based chemicals, clumped and dried for transport. Once at a manufacturing plant, the synthetic rubber polymers are mixed, ingredients may be added and the rubber is rolled into sheets. The sheets can be cut into strips for subsequent molding and processing. There are three basic processing techniques:.
Rubber may not be the first thing you think of when you think reduce, reuse, recyclebut some products can be recycled. For example, tires can be shredded and heated in an anaerobic environment pyrolysis to break down the rubber and to reclaim the oil as oil by-products such as benzene.
In other recycling methods, shredded rubber can be compression molded into different products. Don't leave the rubber room just yet.
The Manufacturing Process of Rubber
We have more links than you can shoot a rubber band at next. Recycled Plastic Waste Creates Roads. Smart Wallpaper Contains Fire Alarm. Prev NEXT. Processing and Profiting from Rubber. Getty Images.
When it comes to producing rubber products, multiple manufacturing processes exist. Each manufacturing process has particular benefits that make it the ideal choice for manufacturing certain types of products. Knowing the manufacturing processes can help you understand cost implications and tradeoffs. Some of the most common rubber manufacturing processes are extrusion, latex dipping, molding, and calendering. Extrusion begins with an unvulcanized compound being fed into an extruder. Once the compound reaches the dye, the pressure from the process forces it through the opening of the extruder.
During the vulcanization process the rubber may swell or shrink, after vulcanization the length of the rubber extrusion may be impacted as well. Extrusion manufacturing has the advantage of being able to produce products in high volumes at a lower production cost. Some of the common rubber products produced from extrusion includes profiles, cord, tubing, and gaskets. Latex dipping occurs when thin walled molds are immersed into latex compounds and then slowly withdrawn.
The thickness of the dipped product can easily be increased by simply re-dipping the product in the latex compound. After the dipping process occurs, the product is finished by vulcanization. Depending on the finished dipped product, post treatments may also be needed. At the Hygenic Corporation we use a proprietary dipping method to achieve the optimal finished product. The main advantage of dip molding includes being able to dip latex products with thinner walls and to create more complex shapes than extrusion.
Some of the common dip molded products include rubber gloves, grips, bladders, balloons, tubing, etc. Molding is comprised of three main manufacturing processes, which are compression molding, transfer molding, and injection molding.
Compression molding is the oldest and least expensive method. With compression molding, a rubber compound is formed into a blank chunk of rubber ; the blank then gets placed into a mold cavity to be shaped. The heating time is slow, which results in a long curing time; the heating can vary from three minutes for thin walls to several hours for thick walls. Some advantages of this method include being suitable for rubber compounds with large surface areas, and the ability to be used for rubber compounds with high viscosity and poor flow properties.
On the down side, the process is time consuming with a low production rate. Some of the common products made with the compression molding process include seals, o-rings, electrical insulators, and silicone wrist bands.
Transfer molding is a natural progression in development to limit the disadvantages of compression molding. The process starts out with a blank being loaded in the chamber, which is then distributed into several cavities. In this beginning stage, pre-heating takes place in the rubber, forcing the rubber to flow through channels. This pre-heating reduces the curing time and allows the rubber to flow easier and fill mold cavities efficiently.
However, the molds are more complicated and expensive. Injection molding is the third most common molding process. With injection molding, the press unit and injection unit act as two separate entities with separate controls.
The press unit allows for molds to be placed horizontally or vertically. An extruder unit can also serve several presses by moving in a pre-programmed pattern. All of these result in short injection processes with high amounts of pre-heating. With this type of molding, the handling of blanks is eliminated, processes can be automated and difficult cavities and flow channels can easily be filled. The last most common manufacturing process is called calendaring, which works by forcing softened material into the center of counter-rotating rollers.
Rollers compact the material and the overall thickness of the product is determined by the gap distance between cylinders, which can be adjusted for varying product thicknesses.Vulcanizationchemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures.
In its simplest form, vulcanization is brought about by heating rubber with sulfur. The process was discovered in by the U. Such a material, called an acceleratorcauses vulcanization to proceed more rapidly or at lower temperatures. The reactions between rubber and sulfur are not fully understood, but in the product, the sulfur is not simply dissolved or dispersed in the rubber; it is chemically combined, mostly in the form of cross-links, or bridges, between the long-chain molecules.
Anti-oxidants are also commonly included to retard deterioration caused by oxygen and ozone. Certain synthetic rubbers are not vulcanized by sulfur but give satisfactory products upon similar treatment with metal oxides or organic peroxides. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Vulcanization rubber manufacturing. Read More on This Topic. The molecular behaviour outlined above is sufficient to give polymers the properties of extensibility and elasticity, but in many cases….
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The molecular behaviour outlined above is sufficient to give polymers the properties of extensibility and elasticity, but in many cases the properties of elastomers must be modified in order to turn them into useful rubbery materials.
The necessity for such modification was first demonstrated…. In the vulcanization of rubber, polyolefins are converted to an elastomeric substance with desirable mechanical properties by cross-linking the chains with two or more sulfur atoms.
History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.Rubber processing consists of four basic steps: 1 mastication, when the elastomer is sheared and the molecules are broken down to give easier flow, 2 mixing, usually carried out immediately after mastication, when additives are incorporated, 3 shaping of the viscous mass, for example, by extrusion or molding, and 4 curing, when the polymer molecules become interlinked and the shape is fixed.
Mastication and softening are usually carried out in batches.Wasmo somali ah oo macan
The operation is done either in large enclosed mixing machines or on rubber mills. The preeminent example of an enclosed machine is the Banbury registered trademark mixer, consisting of heavy steel counterrotating paddles in an hourglass-shaped chamber, holding up to one-half ton of rubber.
Rubber mills have two large horizontally opposed, closely spaced steel cylinders, up to 3 metres 10 feet long, that are rotated slowly in opposite directions and at somewhat different speeds. Rubber is sheared and softened in the gap between the paddles and wall of the Banbury mixer and in the gap between the two cylinders in the roll mill. Mixing is carried out on machines similar to those used in mastication, sometimes immediately after softening.
Reactive materials, fillers, oils, and protective chemicals of various kinds, as described above, are incorporated into the base elastomer by a combined shearing and mixing action. An enclosed Banbury-type mixer can produce up to one-half ton of mixed compound in a few minutes.Crucial p1 dram reddit
The compound is then sheeted out, coated with a release soap to prevent sticking, and stored until use on steel pallets that can hold up to one ton of rubber. Shaping of the mixture into the desired form takes place in several ways. Extruders are used to produce long continuous products such as tubing, tire treads, and wire coverings. They are also used to produce various profiles that can later be cut to length.
Multiroll calenders are used to make wide sheeting. In transfer and injection molds, the rubber mix is forced through channels into a mold chamber of the required shape, where it is cured under pressure. Tires are made of several components: bead wire, sidewall compound, inner liner, cord plies, belt package, and tread; these are brought together and assembled as a complete tire before being transferred to the curing press.
Curing is carried out in pressurized steel molds, which are heated by steam or electricity to temperatures at which the interlinking reaction takes place. Because heat penetrates rubber slowly, thick articles must be allowed longer curing times, up to several hours, at lower temperatures. Pressures of 1 megapascal pounds per square inch or more are normally imposed in order to maintain the desired shape and to force trapped air to dissolve in the compound.
Other methods of curing the rubber mix after it has been shaped include steam heating in autoclaves, microwave irradiation, and passage through a heated bath of molten metal salts or a fluidized bed.
In these cases curing is carried out at near-atmospheric pressure. Article Media. Info Print Print.Rubber Technology is the subject dealing with the transformation of rubbers or elastomers into useful products, such as automobile tiresrubber mats and, exercise rubber stretching bands.
The materials includes latexnatural rubbersynthetic rubber and other polymeric materials, such as thermoplastic elastomers. Most rubber products are vulcanizeda process which involves heating with a small quantity of sulphur or equivalent cross-linking agent so as to stabilise the polymer chains, over a wide range of temperature. This discovery was made by Charles Goodyear in thebut is a process restricted to polymer chains having a Double bond in the backbone.
The range of materials available is much wider however, since all polymers become elastomeric above their Glass transition temperature.
However, the elastomeric state is unstable because chains can slip past one another resulting in creep or stress relaxation under static or dynamic load conditions. Chemical cross links add the stability to the network that is needed for most practical applications.
Methods for processing rubber include mastication and various operations like mixing, calenderingextrusionall processes being essential to bring crude rubber into a state suitable for shaping the final product.
The former breaks down the polymer chains, and lowers their molecular mass so that viscosity is low enough for further processing. After this has been achieved, various additions can be made to the material ready for cross-linking. Rubber may be masticated on a two-roll mill or in an industrial mixerwhich come in different types. Rubber is first compounded with additives like sulfur, carbon black and accelerators.
It is converted into a dough-like mixture which is called "compound" then milled into sheets of desired thickness. Rubber may then be extruded or molded before being cured.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Industrial Rubber Goods. Retrieved 31 January Categories : Manufacturing Rubber products Rubber industry. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Languages Magyar Edit links.ASTM's rubber standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and assessing the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of a wide variety of materials and products that are made of rubber and its elastomeric derivatives. Rubber, which can either be synthetically produced or derived from the milky colloidal suspension found in the sap of some plants, exhibits unique properties that render it extensively useful in many applications and products.
These rubber standards allow rubber manufacturers and end-users to examine and evaluate their material or product of concern to ensure quality and acceptability towards safe utilization. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards. Fire Standards and Flammability Standards. Geotechnical Engineering Standards. Consumer Product Evaluation Standards. Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards. Durability of Nonmetallic Material Standards.
Electrical Insulating Material Standards. Electrical Standards and Magnetic Conductor Standards. Environmental Toxicology Standards. Fatigue Standards and Fracture Standards. Industrial Hygiene Standards and Safety Standards. Medical Device Standards and Implant Standards. Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Standards. Paint Standards and Related Coating Standards. Paper Standards and Packaging Standards. Pharmaceutical Application Standards. Resilient Floor Covering Standards.
Rolling Element Bearing Standards. Search and Rescue Operations Standards. Sports Standards and Recreation Standards. Temperature Measurement Standards.90s spanish hits
Unmanned Maritime Vehicle Standards. Rubber Standards. Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Gaskets. Standard Terminology Relating to Carbon Black.
Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics. Standard Specification for Rubber Sheet Gaskets. Standard Specification for Coated Fabrics—Waterproofness. Nitrogen Adsorption. Standard Specification for Rubber Surgical Gloves. Standard Specification for Rubber Examination Gloves. Standard Specification for Elastomeric Water Bottles. Standard Guide for Assessment of Medical Gloves.The methods of manufacturing rubber are similar for all producers World-Wide.
VIP-Polymers process a variety of rubber materials, both natural and synthetic, into compounds suitable to face the most challenging performance and environmental criteria. Natural rubbers are supplied from traditional countries in the Far East such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Synthetic rubber is primarily manufactured at chemical plants in Industrial Europe and the U.
On its own, basic rubber is of little use and must be formulated to make it suitable for manufacture and to ensure desired properties in finished products. Following laboratory development, precise formulations are used in production mixing operations to blend compounds into strip or slab form suitable for later processing.
This is accomplished as follows:. The processed material compound is now suitable for moulding or extrusion.129 161 units to lbs
Test coupons are also sent from each 'Batch' to Quality Control and subjected to a testing programme before release to production. During each machine cycle an operator may perform a variety of operations including: Trimming excess rubber flashinspection, packaging or assembly. Alternatively, the part may be forwarded for trimming by other methods. This simpler process is slower in operation than injection moulding in that special uncured preformed and weighed blanks are used.
Again the operator may have tasks to perform as described for injection moulding. Compression moulding is generally more suited to low volume production or where tooling costs are to be kept to a minimum. Compression moulding is also not suitable for moulding complex shapes.
VIP-Polymers utilise a manufacturing process known as Continuous Vulcanisation for production of cured extrusion for conversion into certain finished products as follows. This process invariably involves a line length of as much as l00 feet, and optional operations may utilise a U-format to economise on space. VIP Polymers brochure. Toggle navigation. Formulation and Mixing of Rubber Compounds: VIP-Polymers process a variety of rubber materials, both natural and synthetic, into compounds suitable to face the most challenging performance and environmental criteria.
This is accomplished as follows: Blend using a roll milling process.
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